What are the various component and their roles in a laser cartridge?

OPC: (Organic Photo Conductor)- OPC Drum is the Heart of the Cartridge, It is responsible for printing the final image on the paper.

PCR: (Primary Charging Roller)- PCR discharges the OPC surface from where it  is not supposed to print.

Mag Roller: It transfers the toner from toner bin to OPC. As when the magnetic roller rotates, it attracts toner towards it by a permanent magnetic axle which is                    fitted inside the sleeve and electrical signals from high voltage power supply in the printer.

Doctor Blade: It physically regulates the quantity of toner on the magnetic roller by using pressure from its silicon rubber blade rubbing against the magnetic                         roller sleeve.

Wiper Blade: The rubber edge of wiper blade removes any leftover toner from the drum that could not be transferred to the paper.

Why should I choose model-wise toner for refilling my laser cartridge when universal toner powders are also available?

Firstly, different laser printers have different specifications (like DPI, resolution, speed, usage, etc.) and laser cartridge & toners are designed keeping in view printer specifications. This leads to change in toner specifications (like pH, particle size, surface tension, melting point etc.) as per printer/cartridge.

Secondly, in order to discourage refilling, OEMs also formulate ink/toner of different specifications for different cartridges, design cartridges in a manner which are difficult to refill as refilling greatly effects OEM cartridge business world-wide.

So, aftermarket (compatible) industry has no choice except to formulate different toners for different cartridges, keeping in view OEM toner/cartridge specifications.

Apart from good quality toner powder which other factors contribute for overall quality in refilling?

Apart from good quality toner powder, condition of cartridge, condition of printer, quality of media (paper, banner, etc.), environmental and usage conditions like dust, dirt, temperature etc. play an important role in print quality obtained from refilled cartridges.

How to get best refilling results in LaserJet cartridges?

Apart from factors discussed in above question no 65 following factors contribute to best results in laser cartridge refilling:

-       Prompt refilling

-       Cartridge emptying procedure – (by blowing off toner from cartridge using dry air under pressure or vacuum cleaning or using the toner cartridge cleaning machine)

-       Clean and dust free refilling area

-       Clean refilling tools

-       Proper cleaning of cartridge (inside and outside)

-       Careful handling and cleaning of all parts like OPC, PCR, mag roller etc using clean lint free cloth.

-       Careful re-assembly of sensitive components.

-       Applying proper consumables (conductive grease, padding powder etc.) at respective areas).

-       Proper storage and packing of laser cartridges (for protecting OPC drum).

-       Pre Shipment Testing


I have color printer (laser) and all 4 color toner cartridges are installed but certain colors are not printed, why?

Anyone or more out of the four colors (CMYK) of your laser cartridge might be exhausted. As all the colors printed from a color cartridge are generated by discreet mixing of these 4 colors only e.g. Green is printed by mixing Cyan and Yellow, so if yellow is  exhausted then whenever we print green we’ll get only cyan (blue).

Replaced a new/refilled toner cartridge in my laser printer but why the printer is not recognizing the cartridge (red light indicator)?

There could be 5 possible reasons to this problem:

a.     The cartridge which is installed may not be compatible with the printer.

b.    Check the seal carefully and remove it if not removed.

c.     Cartridge may not be installed properly. Re-install it.

d.    Chip or fuse may be wrongly fitted/ displaced from its original position on the cartridge. Restore it to its original position.

The compatible chip could be expired and needs replacement.

Replaced a new/refilled toner cartridge in my laser printer but why am I getting ‘low ink’ or ‘low toner’ or ‘cartridge empty’ message.

Normally ‘low toner’ message is displayed by the laser printer when the toner level  in the cartridge falls to 30% or lower of the cartridge capacity This is done by the supply-counter of the laser printer.

If ‘cartridge empty’ message is received from printer, this means that the count of compatible chip on the cartridge has expired.

Why am I getting blank pages?

The possible reasons could be:

a.     Toner seal which is attached to the cartridge is still intact so you need to remove the seal.

b.     Check your Cartridge may be it is empty.

c.     Laser beam shutter not opening.

d.     It is also possible that one of your cartridge/printer sensors is dead.

Why am I getting almost black pages?

The problem of getting completely black pages directly associates with the Primary charging roller, which in this case is not capable to discharge the surface of OPC where it didn’t mean to print. Check whether the PCR is not fitted properly/ dead or one of the sensor (either on cartridge or printer) associated with the PCR is not working.

Why printouts are light and not dark enough to read?

Most common reasons could be:

a)     It may be because of any worn out component (OPC, Mag roller or doctor blade.). You need to replace the worn out component.

b)     Toner powder may be sub standard or non compatible or may have moisture. Need to be replaced in all the cases.

c)     Printer’s lens could be dirty, it require cleaning. Kindly contact printer technician.

d)     Printer setting adjusted to low density, changes the setting.

Select Printer and faxes (icon) in control-panel, Right click on printer model and select printing preference, in paper quality tab select the desired print quality (resolution in dpi).

Note: The above settings  is for HP Black for windows XP.It may differ for different model or operating system.


Why the printed matter is not sticking firmly on paper (can be easily brushed or wiped off)?

The above problem could be due to two main reasons:

a.     The fuser unit of your printer is faulty (non-capable to melt the toner). Contact printer technician.

b.    The toner may not be fully compatible and having a high melting point, Replace it. 

What is standard print area of a paper?

Generally if we take an A4 size paper, the size of an A4 paper is 210 X 297 mm & the print area of an A4 size paper is 203.2 x 289 mm. The machine is unable to print borderless, full bleed, or print  edge to edge of the paper. The printable area may vary depending on the paper size, print setting and the printer driver you are using.

Why am I getting dots/marks in printouts at equal vertical distances, within “print area”( as explained in question for standard print area) ?

a.     If you get 3-4 marks within print area, the reason could be either a minor scratch/dent on OPC surface or scratch on fuser roller of you printer. Replace the defective part(s).

b.    If you get 5-7 marks within print area, the reason could be some dot/spot on the developer roller of your cartridge. Replace the part(s).

Why am I getting dots/marks in printouts at equal vertical distances, outside the print area also (as explained in question for standard print area)?

a.     If you get 3-4 marks outside the print area also the reason could be a major dent/scratch on OPC surface. Replace the OPC.

b.     If you get 5-7 marks outside the print area, the reason could be some dot/spot on the PCR of your cartridge. Replace the PCR.

Why am I getting irregular horizontal lines in some printouts (outside print area also)?

a.     OPC drum could have got a severe scratch, Replace the OPC drum.

b.     OPC drum sensor clip has misaligned. Realign OPC sensor.

c.     Toner sticking on high voltage contacts in printer and needs cleaning with blower and cloth.

Why am I getting horizontal lines or bands in printouts at regular intervals within print area?

The possible reasons for above problem could be:

a.     High voltage contacts in printer could be malfunctioning. Contact printer technician.

a.     Fuser roller/ sleeve of the printer could be malfunctioning. Contact printer technician.

b.     Misaligned balancing springs of cartridge. Realign the springs.

c.     Mag Roller’s contact spring of the cartridge is bent or broken. Replace the spring.

d.     Scrapers/Bushes of cartridge  could be malfunctioning. Replace items.

Why am I getting vertical lines in printouts within print area?

The possible reasons for the above problem could be:

a.    Dirty optical mirror lens of printer, it needs cleaning. Contact printer technician.

a.    Obstructed laser beam pathway on the cartridge. Remove the obstruction.

b.    The toner inside the cartridge is low. Refill toner or install new cartridge.

c.    Obstructed flow of toner from doctor blade. Dismantle, Clean and reassemble.

d.    Mag roller needs to be replaced.

Why am I getting vertical lines in printouts outside the print area also?

The possible reasons for the above problem could be:

a.    Damaged or stained fuser roller sleeve of printer.  Kindly contact printer technician.

b.    Wiper blade may be damaged (cut/worn out). Replace wiper blade.

c.    Waste-bin of cartridge is full. Empty it out.

d.    Worn out OPC drum. Replace drum.

Why am I getting missing text from center of a printout (vertically)?

There could be two reasons for this problem:

a.     Toner inside the cartridge is low. Shake the cartridge and re-install. If this doesn’t work, you might need a refill.

b.     Toner has absorbed moisture (caking of toner). Replace toner in the cartridge.

Why am I getting top text printed 2 times in printouts (ghost images)?

The possible reasons for the above problem could be:

a.     Kind of environment (high humidity/ low temperature). Shift the printer to recommended temperature (refer cartridge Box).

b.     Toner build-up on fuser/transfer roller of printer. Kindly contact printer technician.

c.     OPC drum could be worn out. Replace OPC drum.

d.     Primary charging roller may be dirty. Clean/replace PCR.

Why am I getting grey shade in printouts (background)?

The possible reasons for the above problem could be:

a)     Incorrect print density setting. Reset settings to desired print quality (resolution in dpi).

b)     The environment of the room is not appropriate for Printer or moist. Refer printer box for appropriate environment.

c)     Transfer  roller of your printer could be dirty. Clean/ replace the transfer roller.

d)     OPC drum may be having extra high Image density. Replace the drum.

e)     Primary charging roller  having a hard coated surface also supports background. Replacing hard PCR may resolve the problem.

f)      Toner powder may be losing  electrostatic charge. Replace the toner.

Why am I Getting irregular & scattered dots (or pinholes) in printouts (means dots are not in any pattern or interval or distance)?

If sprinkled dots appear on the printed page (outside print area), this means either:

a.     Paper path of your printer is dirty. Clean it with blower or dry cloth

b.    Transfer roller of your printer is dirty. Clean or replace the Roller

c.     Cartridges toner is leaking. Reconfirm the cause and take corrective measure

d.    Recovery blade in your cartridge has worn out. Replace Blade


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